What is Swiss Type CNC Lathe
1. Swiss CNC lathe definition
Swiss CNC lathe, full name is Swiss type CNC lathe, short name is Swiss lathe, scientific name definition: Sliding headstock CNC lathe. In international market it is called Swiss precision automatic lathe, in China market it is also called longitudinal type CNC lathe, Due to the basic configuration of Swiss CNC including side power rotary head, it is called Swiss type turning milling composite lathe.
2. Swiss CNC lathe principle
The difference between Swiss CNC lathe and CNC lathe:
Swiss CNC lathe is one kind of machine belongs to CNC lathe
The traditional CNC lathe rely mostly on carbide tool movement, which is called gang tool type CNC lathe,the clamping position of product each time is fixed, through spindle rotary and carbide tool movement to process product;while the carbide tools of Swiss CNC lathe are in fixed position, through spindle movement and rotary to process product, it support feeding material multiple times.
Therefore compared to gang tool type CNC lathe, during Swiss CNC lathe machining, the round bar material is sent to center guide bush in horizontal direction, while machining point is very close to the guide bush surface with good rigidity,in order to eliminate the material deformation by the carbide tool machining pressure and guarantee the product accuracy, as well as it is also a absolute advantage to produce long thin shaft products.
However in normal condition Swiss CNC lathe only support long bar material in batch production;while gang tool type CNC lathe could process short single piece material. Meanwhile because the material need to go through the spindle and collet, guide bush, Swiss CNC lathe has high requirement of raw material,such as straightness and ovality.
3.The difference between guide bush mode and no guide bush mode.
Because Swiss CNC lathe adopt long material machining which needs to reserve certain space at the end of raw material for the clamping, thus Swiss CNC lathe has a disadvantage of wastage of tail material.
Swiss CNC lathe has guide bush (sliding spindle) and no guide bush(carbide tool movement)
Two machining mode.
4.Swiss CNC lathe machining area structure
Swiss CNC lathe consists of Main (Sub) spindle and carbide tool base
4.1. Main spindle
has Z1 direction movement and C1 axis arbitrarily indexing and positioning, support feeding material multiple times; 2. Sub spindle: has Z2,X2 axis direction movement and C1 axis arbitrarily indexing rotary and positioning, assist main spindle to do some machining jobs, catch products and second process at sub spindle carbide tools, during machining sub spindle use independent control channel which is complementation with main spindle, achieve both main and sub spindle work at same time to shorten the cycle time of final product.
4.2. Tool post
Outer diameter turning tool: located at main spindle tool base which could grooving, turning outer diameter of material, threading, cutting, etc.
Side rotary power head: located at main spindle tool base which could drilling, tapping, sawing,etc., some models support plug type extended functions, such as end face rotary power head, thread whirling, angle indexing rotary power head,etc. in order to achieve complex products.
End face fixed tool base: located at main spindle end face, the heart of product act as center,coordinate with main spindle C axis rotary, could do the job of drilling, tapping and boring.
Sub spindle end face fixed tool base: Located at sub spindle tool post, through coordinating with sub spindle X,Z axis and C axis, could do the job of drilling, tapping,sawing, milling, etc., all the lathe models accept and support plug type extended functions.
5. Swiss CNC lathe model
Swiss CNC lathe name normally based on
- The biggest processing diameter
- Main spindle number
- Moveable axis
The processing cope of diameter
Because Swiss CNC lathe require long material for processing as well as material need to go through main spindle, in order to guarantee the machining accuracy, so the machining scope of Swiss CNC lathe is determined by centrifugation rate of different diameter material , spindle power and rotation speed.
At present the biggest diameter model of China made Swiss CNC lathes are: 16,20,25/26,32mm.
Moveable spindle and axis number
Conventional Swiss CNC lathe is divided into single spindle Swiss CNC lathe and doublde spindle Swiss CNC lathe according to spindle number.
Single spindle Swiss CNC lathe consists of Z axis of main spindle and X,Y axis of tool post, thus it is also called 3 axis Swiss CNC lathe which controlled by one system channel.
Except X,Y,Z axis of Swiss CNC lathe, double spindle Swiss CNC lathe has additional sub spindle. It controlled by two or more than two independent system channel.
In terms of processing ability, single spindle Swiss CNC lathe could only do the job of 5 surface of a product, the final cutting surface could not do further processing, besides when cutting a product, influenced by centrifugation rate caused by product rotary as well as product itself weight, before cutting tool close to the center of the product, product break itself, for this reason, the finished product has a small tail nail at the surface. The small tail nail could be removed by second operation after machining. For single spindle Swiss CNC lathe, the small nail can not be avoid.
Double Swiss CNC lathe could do the job of second process on the basis of single spindle lathe, the sub spindle catch the product from main spindle, then work at the 6th surface of a product.
Meanwhile because sub spindle is independent channel, after sub spindle get the product from main spindle, main spindle could start to process a new product at once while sub spindle is making the 6th surface of a product at the same time. Both spindle work at the same time to save machining efficiency.
At present the highest number of moveable axis of China made conventional Swiss CNC lathe up to 6. In the year 2014 NANJING JIANKE MACHINERY CO.,LTD. Independently invented 9 axis Swiss CNC lathe which is able to support 9 moveable axis and controlled by 3 independent channels. The invention won national patent and represent the highest level of China Swiss CNC lathe.
Naming format: (Biggest processing diameter)- (Moveable axis)
So take a biggest processing diameter 20mm for example,
Single spindle named 20-3, Double spindle named 20-4 ,20-5 and so on.
6. Tool post position structure and advantage,disadvantages
Tool post position divided into two kinds: sides tool post and top tool post
Sides tool post
Advantage: Because the carbide tools arranged evenly at two sides , the shift time between tools are short,considering some products which are need different tools and shift times between them are often, the efficiency are better of this model.
Disadvantage: The tools are cutting from both sides, thus for some adhesive material(such as aluminum) which the scrap not easy to break and stick to the carbide tools , will cause lathe alarm and stop production. Second, due to carbide tools are compact, there is no enough room for the plug type extended functions.
Top tool post
Advantage: The tools are cutting from the top, easy for removing scrap compared to side tools structure.
Carbide tools stand in horizontal line, there is enough space between rotary power tools,this kind of tool post support different kinds of plug type extended functions.
Disadvantage: Because all the tools are at the top of tool post which caused long travel distance from the first tool to the last one, compared to side tool post structure, if shift times between different carbide tools, it will spend more time.
Post time: Aug-24-2018